Abstract

Research Article

Prevalence of congenital heart diseases among primary school children in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, West Africa

Ujuanbi Amenawon Susan*, Tabansi Petronilla Nnena and Otaigbe Barbara Edewele

Published: 26 September, 2019 | Volume 4 - Issue 3 | Pages: 144-149

Introduction: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Community-based studies are important in ascertaining the burden of the disease.

Objectives: The study was set out to determine the prevalence and types of CHD among primary school children in Port Harcourt Local Government Area (PHALGA) of Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 1,712 primary school pupils were selected by multistage sampling from twelve schools in PHALGA. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from pupil’s parents on their child’s biodata and symptoms suggestive of heart disease. General physical and cardiovascular system examinations were carried out on each selected pupil, following which those with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of heart disease had echocardiographic confirmation of their cardiac status.

Results: The 1,712 subjects were aged 5-14 (mean 8.48 ± 2.30) years. 874 (51.1%) were females while males were 838 (48.9%). The study revealed that 31 pupils had congenital heart diseases confirmed by echocardiography, giving a prevalence of 18.1 per 1,000 pupils. The commonest cardiac defects seen were acyanotic CHD in 30 (96.8%) pupils while cyanotic CHD was seen in only one (3.2%) pupil. Among the acyanotic CHD, atrial septal defects (83.9%) followed by ventricular septal defects (9.7%) were the commonest. CHD occurred with higher frequency among females (64.5%) and among the younger age group of 5-9 years (61.3%) though these were not statistically significant (p > 0.005).

Conclusion: Cardiac examination as part of compulsory health screening at primary school entry will help detect children with CHD, reduce delay in diagnosis for intervention, avert debilitating morbidity and assure a better quality of life. 

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jccm.1001056 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Congenital heart disease; Prevalence; Primary school children

References

  1. Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circulation. 1971; 43: 323-332. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5102136
  2. Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 39: 1890-1900. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12084585
  3. Deen JL, Vos T, Huttly SR, Tulloch J. Injuries and non-communicable diseases - emerging health problems of children in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 1999; 77: 518-524. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10427938
  4. Bernier PL, Stefanescu A, Samoukovic G, Tchervenkor CI. The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts. Semin Thorac cardiovasc Surg Paediatr Card Surg Ann. 2010; 13: 26-34. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20307858
  5. Ibadin MO, Sadoh WE, Osarogiagbon W. Congenital heart diseases at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Niger J Paediatr. 2005; 32: 29-32.
  6. Tantchou-Tchoumi JC, Ambassa JC, Butera G, Giamberti A, Sadeu JC. Occurrence and pattern of congenital heart diseases in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2011; 22: 63-66. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21556446
  7. Ekure EN, Animashaun A, Bastos M, Ezeaka VC. Congenital heart diseases associated with identified syndromes and other extra-cardiac congenital malformations in children in Lagos. West Afr J Med. 2009; 28: 33-37. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19662743
  8. Romano-Zelekha O, Hirsh R, Blieden L, Green MS, Shohat T. The risk for congenital heart defects in offspring of individuals with congenital heart defects. Clin Genet. 2001; 59: 325-329. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11359463
  9. Frias JL. Genetic issues of congenital heart disease. In: Gessner IH, Victrorica BE (eds). Pediatric Cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1993; 237-242.
  10. Bode-Thomas F. Overcoming challenges in the management of structural heart diseases in Nigerian Children. J Med Trop. 2011; 13: 54-56.
  11. Misra M, Mittal M, Verma AM, Rai R, Chandra G, et al. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease in school children of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian Heart J. 2009; 61: 58-60. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729691
  12. Khalil SI, Gharieb K, EI Haj M, Khalil M, Hakiem S. Prevalence of congenital heart disease among school children of Sahafa town, Sudan. Sudan Med J. 1997; 3: 24-28.
  13. Jarun S, Pentip SC, Kraminee P, Kanchapan S, Naraporn S, et al. The prevalence of unrecognized congenital heart disease among healthy elementary school students in Northern Thailand. Asian Biomed. 2010; 4: 171-175.
  14. Bassili A, Mokhtar SA, Dabous NI, Zaher SR, Mokhtar MM, et al. Congenital heart disease among School children in Alexandria, Egypt: an overview on prevalence and relative frequencies. J Trop Pediatr. 2000; 46: 357-362. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11191148
  15. Yilgwan CS, Ige OO, Bode-Thomas F. Clinical screening for heart disease in apparently healthy Nigerian school children. Nig J Cardiol. 2014; 11: 74-79.
  16. Niimura I, Maki T. Sudden cardiac death in childhood. Jpn Circ J. 1989; 53: 1571- 1580.
  17. Lai WW, Geva T, Shirali GS, Frommelt PC, Humes RA, et al. Guidelines and standards for performance of a paediatric echocardiogram: a report from the Task Force of the Paediatric Council of the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2006; 19: 1413-1430. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138024
  18. McLaren MJ, Lachman AS, Barlow JB. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in black schoolchildren of Soweto, Johannesburg. Br Heart J. 1979; 41: 554-558. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/465225
  19. Chen QH, Wang XQ, Qi SG. Cross-sectional study of congenital heart disease among Tibetan children aged from 4 to 18 years at different altitudes in Qinghai Province. Chin Med J. 2008; 121: 2469-2472. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187580
  20. Bahadur KC, Sharma D, Shrestha MP, Gurung S, Rajbhandari S, et al. Prevalence of rheumatic and congenital heart disease in schoolchildren of Kathmandu valley in Nepal. Indian Heart J. 2003; 55: 615-618. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14989511
  21. Muta H, Akagi T, Egami K, Furui J, Sugahara Y, et al. Incidence and clinical features of asymptomatic atrial septal defect in school children diagnosed by heart disease screening. Circ J. 2003; 67: 112-115. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12547990
  22. Adatia I, kathori SS, Feinstein JA. Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: pulmonary vascular disease: the global perspective. Chest. 2010; 137: 52S-61S. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20522580
  23. Mocumbi AO, Lameira E, Yaksh A, Paul L, Ferreira MB, et al. Challenges on the management of congenital heart disease in developing countries. Int J Cardiol. 2011; 148: 285-288. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932516
  24. Sadoh WE. Natural history of ventricular septal defects in Nigeria children. S Afr J Child Health. 2010; 4: 16-19.
  25. Kidd L, Driscoll DJ, Gersony WM, Hares CJ, Keane JF, et al. Second natural history study of congenital heart diseases. Results of treatment of patients with ventricular septal defects. Circulation. 1993; 87: 138-151. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8425321
  26. Marijon E, Tivane A, Voicu S, Vilanculos A, Jani D, et al. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in schoolchildren of sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique. Int J Cardiol. 2006; 113: 440-441. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011646

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More